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References throughout are to the Oxford edition of the complete works of Dante. In order, however, that the Dictionary may serve equally well for other editions of Dante's works (e. g. those of Witte, Fraticelli, and Giuliani), I have, as is explained in the Preface, appended, in the case of the Canzoniere, an index of first lines arranged (1) in alphabetical order, (2) in numerical order (according to the numeration of the poems in the Oxford edition) [Table xxxii]; in the case of the De Monarchia, comparative tables of the chapter-divisions adopted respectively in the editions of Witte (whose arrangement is followed in the Oxford Dante), Fraticelli, and Giuliani [Table xxxiii]; and, in the case of the Epistolae, comparative tables of the numeration adopted respectively in the Oxford Dante, and in the editions of Fraticelli and Giuliani [Table xxxiv].
In order to facilitate reference in the case of the prose works, references (indicated by 'superior' or index numbers) are given to the lines (numbered separately for each chapter) of the several treatises as printed in the Oxford Dante, as well as to Book and Chapter; thus Conv. i. 1219 Convivio, Bk. i, Ch. 12, 7. 19; Mon. ii. 3102 De Monarchia, Bk. ii, Ch. 3, l. 102; V.N. § 2576 Vita Nuova, Sect. 25, l. 76; and so on. The index-numbers being disregarded, the references hold equally well, of course, for the other editions of the several treatises.
Cross-references are indicated by printing the name referred to between square brackets and in black type, e. g. [Buemme]. A single square bracket after a name, e. g. Agamemnone], Londra], indicates that the person or place in question is alluded to only, not mentioned by name, in Dante's works. Indexnumbers are employed for the purpose of distinguishing between several persons or places of the same name, e. g. Adriano', Adriano; Ida', Ida; Lapo', Lapo'. The titles of books are printed in slanting type, e.g. Aeneis, De Civitate Dei.
Abati], ancient noble family of Florence, thought by some to be referred to by Cacciaguida (in the Heaven of Mars) as quei che son disfatti Per lor superbia, Par. xvi. 10910. The reference is more probably to the Uberti [Uberti].
The Abati, who, as Villani records, lived in thesesto di porte san Piero,' were Ghibellines (v. 39; vi. 33); they were among those who were expelled from Florence in 1258 (vi. 65); they took part in the battle of Montaperti, with which their name is associated through the treachery of Bocca degli Abati (vi. 78) [Bocca]; at the time of the feuds which arose through the factions of the Bianchi and Neri in Florence, they were partly Ghibellines, partly Guelfs, but they all threw in their lot together with the Bianchi (viii. 39); and they were among those of the latter party who were the objects of the vengeance of the Florentine podestà, Fulcieri da Calboli, in 1302 (viii. 59) [Calboli].
Abati, Bocca degli. [Bocca.]
Abati, Buoso degli. [Buoso.]
Abbagliato, name applied by the Florentine Capocchio (in Bolgia 10 of Circle VIII of Hell) as a nickname (muddle-head') to a Sienese spendthrift, who has been identified with one Meo (i. e. Bartolommeo), son of Rainieri de' Folcacchieri of Siena, and who was a member of the 'spendthrift brigade,' a company of twelve wealthy young Sienese, who vied with each other in squandering their means, Inf. xxix. 130-2 [Brigata Spendereccia].
This Bartolommeo de' Folcacchieri held high office in Siena between 1277 and 1300, where he was chancellor in 1279, and gonfalonier of the army in 1278 and 1280; he was rector of Campagnatico in 1288, podestà of Montereggioni in 1290 and of Monteguidi in 1300, and captain of the Sienese mercenaries in the Maremma from 1289 to 1292; it is on record that he was fined in 1278 for being found drinking in a tavern. (See C.
Folcacchiero Folcacchieri rimatore senese del sec. xiii.)
Benvenuto and others, reading 'l'abbagliato suo senno proferse,' instead of 'l'Abbagliato,' take abbagliato as an epithet of senno, and refer the verb to Caccia d'Asciano of the previous line ('displayed his own muddled wits').
Abel, Abel, second son of Adam; mentioned by Virgil among those released by Christ from Limbo, Inf. iv. 56. [Limbo.]
Abido, Abydos, town in the Troad, on the narrowest part of the Hellespont, nearly opposite to Sestos in Thrace; celebrated as the home of Leander, who used to swim nightly across to Sestos to visit Hero, Purg. xxviii. 74 [Leandro: Sesto 1]; mentioned in connexion with the bridge of boats built by Xerxes across the Hellespont, Mon. ii. 953-4 [Ellesponto: Serse].
Abile], Mt. Abyla, in N. Africa, opposite Calpe (Gibraltar), one of the 'Columns of Hercules'; alluded to, Inf. xxvi. 108. [Colonne di Ercole.]
Abraam, the patriarch Abraham; mentioned by Virgil among those released by Christ from Limbo, Inf. iv. 58. [Limbo.]
Absalone, Absalom, son of David by Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur (2 Sam. iii. 3); encouraged by the evil counsels of Ahithophel the Gilonite, he rebelled against his father, but was defeated in Gilead, in the wood of Ephraim, where he met his death (2 Sam. xv-xix); he is mentioned by Bertran de Born (in Bolgia 9 of Circle VIII of Hell), who compares his own instigation of the Young King' to rebel against his father Henry II of England with the similar part played by Ahithophel in encouraging Absalom to rebel against David, Inf. xxviii. 136-8. [Arrigo 4.]
Abydos, town in the Troad, on the Hellespont, Mon. ii. 951. [Abido.]
Academicae Quaestiones], the Academic Questions (a fragment, in two books) of Cicero; hence D. got the opinion of Zeno that virtue is the highest good, Conv. iv. 684–7 (Acad. Quaest. ii. 22: ‘... utrum Zenoni credidisset, honestum quod esset, id bonum solum esse'; ii. 42: 'honestum autem, quod ducatur a conciliatione naturae, Zeno statuit finem esse bonorum, qui inventor et princeps Stoicorum fuit') [Zenone]; and also the account of the Academic and Peripatetic schools of philosophy, Conv. iv. 6115-47 (Acad. Quaest. i. 4) :
'Platonis autem auctoritate, qui varius, et multiplex, et copiosus fuit, una et consentiens duobus vocabulis philosophiae forma instituta est, Academicorum et Peripateticorum: qui rebus congruentes, nominibus differebant. Nam, cum Speusippum, sororis filium, Plato philosophiae quasi heredem reliquisset; duos autem praestantissimos studio atque doctrina, Xenocratem Chalcedonium, et Aristotelem Stagiritem: qui erant cum Aristotele Peripatetici dicti sunt, quia disputabant inambulantes in Lycio: illi autem, qui Platonis instituto in Academia, quod est alterum gymnasium, coetus erant, et sermones habere soliti, e loci vocabulo nomen habuerunt. Sed utrique Platonis ubertate completi, certam quandam disciplinae formulam composuerunt, et eam quidem plenam, ac refertam : illam autem Socraticam dubitationem de omnibus rebus, et nulla affirmatione adhibita consuetudinem disserendi reliquerunt.'
Acan, Achan, son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, 'who took of the accursed thing' in appropriating part of the spoil of Jericho, contrary to the commands of Joshua. After the defeat of the Israelites in their attack upon Ai, A. confessed his guilt, and the booty was discovered. Thereupon he and his whole family were stoned to death by command of Joshua, and their remains and property were burned (Josh. vii). D. includes A. among the instances of avarice proclaimed by the Avaricicus in Circle V of Purgatory, Purg. xx. 10911 [Avari].
Accademia, the Academia, a piece of land on the Cephissus, near Athens, so called from having originally belonged to a hero named Academus. It was subsequently a gymnasium, adorned with groves and statues, and became celebrated as the scene of Plato's teaching, whence his followers were called Academic philosophers. D. speaks of it as 'lo luogo dove Platone studiava,' in connexion with the origin of the name of his school of philosophy, Conv. iv. 6125–8. [Accademici : Platone.]
ippus used to teach, Conv. iv. 6125-8 [Accademia]; they were succeeded and superseded by the Peripatetics, Conv. iv. 6142-5 [Peripatetici]. D. got his account of these schools from the Academicae Quaestiones of Cicero (i. 4) [Academicae Quaestiones].
Acciaiuoli, Niccola], Florentine Guelf, who in 1299, together with Baldo d'Aguglione (Par. xvi. 56), in order to destroy the evidence of a fraudulent transaction in which, with the connivance of the Podestà, he had been engaged, defaced a sheet of the public records of Florence. This scandal took place during the period of corruption and maladministration which followed the expulsion of Giano della Bella from Florence [Aguglione : Giano della Bella]. D. alludes to this tampering with the 'quaderno,' Purg. xii. 105.
The following account of the incident, which appears to have been unknown to Benvenuto, is given by the Anonimo Fiorentino :
'Nel MCCLXXXXv, doppo la cacciata di Gian de la Bella, essendo Firenze in male stato, fu chiamato rettore di Firenze, a petizione di quelli che regge. vono, uno povero gentile uomo chiamato messer Monfiorito della Marca Trivigiana, il quale prese la forma della terra, et assolvea et condennava sanza ragione, et palesemente per lui et sua famiglia si vendea la giustizia. Nol sostennono i cittadini, et compiuto l'ufficio, presono lui e due suoi famigli, et lui missono alla colla *, et per sua confessione si seppono cose che a molti cittadini ne seguì grande infamia; et faccendolo collare due cittadini chiamati sopra a ciò, l'uno dicea: basta, l'altro dicea : no. Piero Manzuoli cambiatore, chiamato sopra ciò, disse dagli ancora uno crollo; e 'l cavalieri ch'era in sulla colla disse: io rende' uno testimonio falso a messer Niccola Acciaioli, il quale non condannai; non volea il Manzuolo che quella confessione fosse scritta, però che messer Niccola era suo genero; l'altro pure volle, et scrissesi; et saputo messer Niccola questo fatto, ebbe si gran paura che il fatto non si palesasse, ch'egli se ne consigliò con messer Baldo Agulione, pessimo giudice ghibellino antico. Chiesono il quaderno degli atti al notaio, et ebborlo; et il foglio dov'era il fatto di messer Niccola trassono del quaderno: et palesandosi per lo notaio del foglio ch' era tratto, fu consigliato che si cercasse di chi l' avea fatto; onde il Podestà, non palesando niente, prese messer Niccola, et messer Baldo fuggi. Fu condennato messer Niccola in libre .111.m., et messer Baldo in ... et a'confini fuori della città et del contado per uno anno.'
Villani makes no mention of this incident, possibly because the Acciaiuoli were Guelfs like himself; it is, however, recorded at length by Dino Compagni (i. 19), whose account is substantially the same as that given above; he adds that the corrupt Podestà, whom he calls 'Messer Monfiorito di Padova,' was not only flogged but imprisoned by the Florentines, who refused to release him in spite of repeated i.e. had them tied up and flogged with a rope's end.
Accademici, the Academic or Platonic school of philosophers, so called from the Academia at Athens, where Plato and Speus
applications from the Paduans; he finally effected his escape by the help of the wife of one of the Arrigucci [Arrigucci].
Accidiosi], the Slothful, supposed by some, on account of the expression 'accidioso fummo' (Inf. vii. 123), to be included with the Wrathful (and perhaps also the Envious) in Circle V of Hell [Invidiosi: Iracondi].
Those who expiate the sin of Sloth (accidia) in Purgatory are placed in Circle IV, Purg. xvii. 46-xix. 43 [Beatitudini: Purgatorio]; their punishment is to be obliged to run continually round and round, urging each other to greater exertion with the cry Ratto, ratto, che il tempo non si perda Per poco amore,' Purg. xviii. 94104; those in front recall instances of alacrity, viz. how the Virgin Mary hastened to salute Elisabeth (Luke i. 39), and how Julius Caesar hastened to subdue Lerida (vv. 99-102) [Maria 1: Cesare 1]; those behind recall instances of sloth, viz. how the children of Israel lost the promised land, and how some of the companions of Aeneas remained behind in Sicily (vv. 131-8) [Ebrei: Aceste 1]. Example: an Abbot of San Zeno at Verona [Alberto della Scala: Zeno, San].
Accorso, Francesco d', son of the famous Florentine jurist, Accorso da Bagnolo (commonly known by the Latin name of Accursius), who lectured in the university of Bologna, where he died in 1260; the son, who was born at Bologna in 1225, was himself a celebrated lawyer; he was professor of civil law at Bologna, and in 1273, when Edward I passed through that city on his way back from Palestine, decided, upon the invitation of the latter, to accompany him to England, where he lectured for some time at Oxford, being provided with free quarters in the King's Manor' (i.e. Beaumont Palace, the traditional birthplace of Richard Coeur-de-Lion, the memory of which is preserved in the name of the present Beaumont Street). The Bolognese, who were anxious not to lose him, forbade him to go, under pain of confiscation of all his property, a threat which was carried into execution in the next year, when he was proscribed as a Ghibelline; his belongings, however, were restored to him on his return to Bologna in 1281, where he died in 1293. A sister of his is said also to have professed law at the university of Bologna. A tale about him forms the subject of one of the Cento Novelle Antiche (Nov. lxxxi. ed. Biagi).
D. places Francesco d'Accorso, together with Priscian and Brunetto Latino, among the Sodomites in Round 3 of Circle VII of Hell, Inf. xv. 110 [Sodomiti].
Benvenuto states that D.'s condemnation of these persons aroused a good deal of indignation, which he himself was inclined to share until his own personal experience of the grue
some state of affairs in the university of Bologna, where he lectured on Dante in 1375, induced him to modify his opinion; he says:
'Franciscus filius Accursii primogenitus fuit etiam famosissimus doctor legum, qui laboravit morbo pejoris et ardentioris febris, quam pater suus... autor ponit Franciscum ista horrenda ignominia maculosum, quia male servavit legem suam pulcerrimam, quam docebat alios, quae dicit: cum vir nubit in feminam armentur leges, etc. Et hic nota, lector, quod vidi aliquando viros sapientes magnae literaturae conquerentes, et dicentes, quod pro certo Dantes nimis male locutus est hic nominando tales viros. Et certe ego, quando primo vidi literam istam, satis indignatus fui; sed postea experientia teste didici, quod hic sapientissimus poeta optime fecit. Nam in MCCCLXXV, dum essem Bononiae, et legerem librum istum, reperi aliquos vermes natos de cineribus sodomorum, inficientes totum illud studium: nec valens diutius ferre foetorem tantum, cujus fumus jam fuscabat astra, non sine gravi periculo meo rem patefeci Petro cardinali Bituricensi, tunc legato Bononiae; qui vir magnae virtutis et scientiae detestans tam abhominabile scelus, mandavit inquiri contra principales, quorum aliqui capti sunt, et multi territi diffugerunt. Et nisi quidam sacerdos proditor, cui erat commissum negotium, obviasset, quia laborabat pari morbo cum illis, multi fuissent traditi flammis ignis; quas si vivi effugerunt, mortui non evadent hic, nisi forte bona poenitudo extinxerit eas aqua lacrymarum et compunctionis. Ex hoc autem incurri capitale odium et inimicitiam multorum; sed divina justitia me contra istos hostes naturae hucusque benigne protexit.'
Aceste1, Acestes, a Trojan born in Sicily, whose father was the river-god Crimisus, and his mother a Trojan woman named Egesta, who had been sent to Sicily by her parents. D. refers to the account given by Virgil (Aen. v. 711-18) of how Aeneas on his arrival in Sicily was hospitably entertained by Acestes, with whom he left those of his companions who were unfit to proceed with him to Italy, Conv. iv. 2692-6; these latter are mentioned as instances of sluggards by the Slothful in Circle IV of Purgatory, Purg. xviii. 136-8. [Accidiosi.]
Aceste2, Acastë, the nurse of Argia and Deiphylë, the two daughters of Adrastus, king of Argos; mentioned with reference to the account given by Statius in the Thebaid (i. 529 ff.) of how she brought the two maidens into the presence of their father when Polynices and Tydeus were with him, Conv. iv. 2578-84. [Adrasto.]
Achaemenides, companion of Ulysses, who left him behind in Sicily, when he escaped from the Cyclops. When subsequently the Trojans landed in the island they found Achaemenides there and heard from him how his companions had been devoured by Poly