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thing to Agesilaus, (going profectus) of his own accord (abl.) to help them, (commanded præfuit) the Egyptian fleet; Agesilaus (the land pedestribus) forces. He [Dionysius] gave Arete, the wife of Dion, (in marriage nuptum) to another. They go to destroy all good [men]. (I am hired conductus sum) to cook, not (to be beaten vapulatum). Why dost thou go to destroy thyself? When Olympias, who had been the mother of Alexander, had sent (subj.) letters and messengers into Asia (to ad) him, to consult whether she should come to recover Macedonia, (for she then dwelt in Epirus) and seize (impf. subj.) (the government eas res); he first advised her (not to stir ne se movēret), (but to wait et exspectaret till quoad) the son of Alexander should obtain the kingdom.

Supine in v.

Thou wilt do what shall seem best to be done. A thing (horrid horrenda) to be related. The constitution is very difficult to be managed. (Nearly about ferè per) that time a thing happened to Cæsar's army incredible to be heard. It is necessary to be known. This is right (i. e. lawful) to be spoken. (It is wickedness nefas est) to be spoken. Úttering such [things], she filled (impf.) all the palace (lit. roof) with her groans (sing.), when a (prodigy monstrum), sudden and wonderful to be spoken of, arises! A monster horrid, enormous, to whom are (as many quot) plumes [as are in her] body, (so many tot) watchful eyes (beneath subter), wonderful to be spoken, so many tongues, (so many babbling mouths totidem ora sonant, she pricks up subrigit) so many ears. (Nay quin), they prefix (the very ipsa) heads of Nisus and Euryălus, miserable to be seen, on erect spears, and follow with much accla、 mation.


The English infinitive is not always rendered by a Latin infinitive; for, after sum, the infinitive active is rendered in Latin by the future in rus; the infinitive passive, by the future in dus.


Darius was about to wage
He is either to be taught


or untaught,

Illatūrus bellum Darius erat. Aut docendus is est aut dedocendus,


We were not admitted into the province: what if ye had? would ye have delivered it up to Cæsar, or have held it against Cæsar?

I ask what ye intended to do? though I cannot doubt what ye would have done, when I see what you afterwards did.

Consider now this, what sort of prosecutors we are to have in this important trial; where even Allienus will have to suppress something of his eloquence, if he has any, and Cæcilius can only hope to make a figure, if Allienus shall be less vehement, and leave to him the principal part in the declamation. Who is to act as fourth [solicitor] I know not: to these I am not about to pay so much respect, as to reply to each singly and by turns, to what they shall advance,

Do you ask me, what reason I have to fear Catiline? None at all: and I have taken care lest any one else should fear him yet I say [that] those troops of his, whom I see here, are to be feared. Nor is the ar

Non recipio in provincia quis neut. SI sum impf. subj.? Cæsar ne is trado sum plupf. subj. an contra Cæsar retineo?

Quæro, quis facio sum plupf subj.? quanquam quis facio sum non dubito, cùm video pres. subj. quis facio perf. subj.

Jam hic considero plur., (cujusmodi) accusator acc. in tantus judicium sum habeo; cùm et ipse Allienus ex is facultas, si (quam) habeo, aliquantùm detrǎho sum et Cæcilius tum denique sui acc. (aliquid futurum)*. puto si Allienus minus vehemens sum, et sui primus in dico ger. pars pl. concedo fut. subj. Quartus acc. quis acc. sum pres. subj. habeo non video: qui ego non sum tantus honor habeo, ut ad is neut. plur. qui dico fut. subj. certus locus abl. aut singulatim unusquisque respondeo pres. subj.

Quæro a ego, quis ego Catilina metuo pres. subj.? Nihil et curo ne quis metuo: sed copiæ ille, qui hîc video, dico sum metuo. Nec tam timeo sum nunc exercitus L. Catili

*The verbs puto, existimo, spero, uspicor, &c. are often followed by fore or futurum esse; and esse is sometimes omitted.

my of Catiline so much now to be dreaded, as those who are said to have deserted that army.

na, quàm iste, qui ille exercitus desĕro inf. dico.


What can be said (to ad) these [things]? for I do not ask what thou mayest be about to say. (Then indè) Alexander recovers Rhodes, Egypt and Cilicia, without a contest. Then (he goes to pergit ad) Jupiter Hammon, about to consult both concerning the event of future [affairs], and concerning his own origin. And will any one doubt what he can effect by valour, who effected (perf. subj.) so much by authority? Or how easily (he can sit) protect [your] allies and revenues by his power, and with an army, (who by his very name and reputation qui ipso nomine ac rumore) defended (perf. subj.) [them]? He seems to be pitied [by] some, to be laughed at [by] others. The helps, which we have, are not only not to be diminished, but even new [ones] (if possible si fieri possit) [are] to be procured.

ADAM.-RULE 37. Obs. 3.


They come to see the games.

Veniunt ut ludos spectent.

Veniunt qui ludos spectent.

Veniunt ad spectandum ludos.

Veniunt spectandi ludos causâ or gratiâ.

Veniunt spectandōrum ludōrum causâ.

Veniunt spectandi ludōrum causâ.

Veniunt ad spectandos ludos.

Veniunt spectatum ludos.

And more elegantly,

Veniunt ludos spectatūri.*

* And poetically, Veniunt ludos spectare.


The pupil is to vary each sentence according to the model.

He sent trusty men to fetch the fleet.

I came hither to extricate thee from thy difficulties.

Then Romulus, by the advice of the fathers, sent ambassadors to the neighbouring states to solicit their friendship and connubial alliances with this newly-established people.

Cæsar draws back his forces to the next hill; and he sent his horse to sustain the attack of the enemies.


He, because there was want of provisions in those parts, sent several chief officers and tribunes of the soldiers into the neighbouring states for the purpose of demanding provisions.

Darius, king of the Persians, having shamefully fled from Scythia, that he might not be accounted every where inglorious by the losses of war, sends, with a part of his forces, Megabyzus to conquer Thrace and the other kingdoms of that quarter, to which Macedonia was to be added.

Cæsar, having commanded all things necessary, ran about to encourage his men, wheresoever fortune carried [him], and came down to the tenth legion, He encouraged the soldiers with no longer speech than that they

Certus homo dimitto ut classis arcesso.

Huc venio tu ex difficultas eripio fut. in rus.

Tum ex consilium pater, Romulus legātus circa vicinus gens mitto, qui societas connubiumque novus populus peto.

Copia suus Cæsar in proximus collis subduco; equitatusque, qui sustineo hostis impetus, mitto.

Is, quôd in hic locus inopia frumentum sing. sum impf., præfectus tribūnusque miles (complūres) in finitimus civitas, frumentum sing. peto gerundive causa dimitto.

Darius, rex Persa, turpis ab Scythia fuga summōtus, ne ubique deformis militia damnum habeo, mitto cum pars copiæ Megabyzus ad subigo Thracia, cæterque is tractus regnum, qui sum impf. accedo fut. in rus Macedonia.

Cæsar, necessarius res imperātus abl. abs., ad cohortor miles, qui acc. in pars acc. fors offero decurro, et ad legio decimus devenio. Miles non longus oratio cohortor, quàm

should retain the memory of their former bravery; nor should be discomposed in mind, but sustain bravely the charge of their


utì suus pristinus virtus memoria retineo; neu perturbo animus; hostisque impetus fortiter sustineo.


He sends Rabirius Postumus into Sicily to fetch (gerund) a second supply of (provision commeatum). He flies into the temple to implore (part. in rus) the gods for aid (acc.) and to consult (part. in rus) the oracle. He went to the river to wash away (part. in rus) the blood. They came to attack (sup. in um) the camp [with] a great (body of men manu). Two Roman knights were found (perf.) to free (subj. with qui) thee of that care (abl.), (who promised et pollicerentur) [that] they would assassinate (part. in rus) me that very night (abl.) in my bed, a little before (day-break lucem). (I learned ego comperi) all these [things], (when scarcely, vix dum etiam) your assembly [was] dismissed (abl. absol.). I fortified and secured my house (with additional guards majoribus præsidiis). I excluded those whom thou hadst sent to compliment (lit. to salute, sup. in um) me [in the] morning; when they themselves came (plupf. subj.), (who quos), I (had declared beforehand jam prædixeram) to many men, would come (acc. part. in rus) to me (at that time id temporis). When (it was mentioned, nunciatum esset) to the Romans, that Philip was about to bring over his forces into Italy, they sent Lævinus the prætor with (well-provided instructis) ships to hinder (gerund) [his] passage. Hippias had been lately sent by the king to defend (gerund) (the forest saltum). All of ten came publicly to me, (beseeching me to undertake ut suscipěrem) the cause and defence of all their fortunes.

ADAM.-RULE 55 & 56.



Do not stir a foot hence. He

is distant four miles.

Pedem hinc ne discessĕris. Abest quatuor millibus passuum.

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