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varied by quàm longum est; quantus quantus est; quàm latè

patet; as,

The whole sea.

I passed the whole night without sleep.

This is all your own.

A verb is also, with great propriety, used for an adverb.

1. You write much oftener than usual.

2. I was seized with such a dizziness, when I stood upon the brow of that edifice, that I almost or nearly fell (parum abfuerit quin ceciderim)

Non modò, followed by sed etiam, may be varied by tantum abest ut, nt; or sometimes non dicam.

1. Not only do I not look upon philosophy as able to discover and point out the true method of living, and to be productive of perfect happiness, but I also think that no set of men stand so much in need of others to direct them how to live, as these pretenders to philosophy. 2. No flow of genius, no force of eloquence, no power of description, is sufficient I will not say (non dicam) to embellish, but even to recount your exploits.

The verb oportet may be varied by non possum non.

1. They must indeed live in the greatest prodigality, who, while they are squandering their property, entertain the hopes of possessing ours. 2. I was obliged to give you this advice.

Verbs, and particularly participles, are often used for prep ositions, as privatus, instructus, præditus, ornatus, &c.; as, A soldier will scarcely fight without armour: Miles carens, or non instructus armis vix pugnabit.

For sine.

Though a man should possess all the advantages of power and fortune, though whole nations should obey his nod, and thousands shorld offer him the incense of adulation, yet how could he lead a happy and a pleasant life without friends?

For cum.

1. When his fair promises had lulled us into security, and we were enjoying the slumbers of quiet repose, after the fatigues of the day, he came suddenly upon us, with a great troop of soldiers, and surprised us in our tents.

2. He has retired into the country, and now lives quiet and content, having married a woman with a great deal of money.

For ob, propter.

Here these participles, ductus, impulsus, motus, permotus, impeditus, perterritus, coactus, &c., are elegantly introduced; as,

He betook himself to another quarter through, or on account of, his poverty: Egestate coactus aliò se contulit.

1. Thus this great and illustrious man was put to the most cruel death by a ruffian stained with crimes of the blackest die, and he, whom his enemies had spared on account of his worth and dignity, met with death from the hands of a pretended friend: however, proceeded directly to his tent, where I found two of his freedmen and . a few of his slaves: they said the rest had fled through fear, when they saw their master murdered just before his tent.

2. On account of these considerations, and the authority and persuasions of Orgetorix, they resolved to prepare every thing necessary for an expedition.

For post.

1. After supper (conatus), he went to bed.

2. Truth, after long oppression, will at length emerge, and shine forth the brighter.

3. My gratitude will be due to you even after your death.

To this also belong ablatives absolute :

1. This happened after the death of your father.

2. After this battle, he resolved not to admit them to any terms of peace, since they had behaved with so much duplicity and treachery.

For in, ex.

1. In his way through the maritime states, he visited the Veneti, and, after having passed the river Ligeris, he came among the Ganls, with whom he staid some time, and then returned to the Roman province. 2. The old man was sitting in his gown, when, having approached him respectfully, we saluted him.

3. From experience of the same misfortune, I have learned to commiserate your fate, and will do my best endeavours to relieve your distress.

A substantive is often used instead of a conjunction or a preposition.

1. Some were of opinion, that they were forthwith to be received and assisted; others, that they were to be esteemed as (loco) rebels, and unworthy of help.

2. Such an eagerness to repair their dishonour seized the whole ar

my, that nobody needed the command of either tribune or centurion; and every one, even as a punishment, imposed upon himself labours extraordinary.

3. Because there had been an alarm, in the night, before Cæsar's camp, they took it for an argument, that there could be no stealing out without discovery.

An adverb is often used for a substantive; as,

To speak with subtilty and evasion: Subtiliter et versutè dicere.

1. With what prudence and despatch did he transact this business! 2. He read that book with so much earnestness that he seemed to devour its contents.

3. With truth, I can say, that if you consider the difficult service he had to perform, the obstinate resistance of the enemy, and the disadvantages of an intricate country, he conducted the army with great consideration and circumspection.

And especially ita, followed by si or ut, is often used for on that condition, with such an effect, restriction.

1. It is very expedient that there should be many accusers in a state, that terror may restrain insolence and audacity; with this restriction, however, it is expedient, that we do not become the sport and victims of wanton accusations (ut ne planè illudamur ab accusatoribus).

2. I know that you will use every means in your power to be with us as soon as possible; I desire it, however, on this condition, that you do not make too much haste.

Unde is very frequently used for a quo, à quâ, &c.

1. The man, from whom you came, is a very honest man.

2. The circumstance, from which you set out, is so well known to all, that it needs no further consideration.

Prepositions are often changed one for another.

Ob, for ante, is often used.

To place before one's eyes.

Pre for ante.

Driving a herd before him, he had passed the river in swimming.

Pro for ante.

1. Had he not, in the hearing of the people, sitting before the tem ple of Castor, said that no one could conquer, but he who had con quered?

2. Cæsar stationed the legions before the intrenchment.

2. He denies there can be any living pleasantly without live ously. He denies that fortune has any ascendant over a wist

Verbs, which cannot be used personally in the P must be used impersonally, or with a transposition of tive: as, He was succeeded by his son, successit ei filiz may be observed that verbs, which do not govern an ace tive in the active, do not admit of the corresponding 1 in the passive; as, I am believed when I speak the truth verum dicenti creditur.

The English verbal in ing, after verbs of preventing hibiting, &c., is rendered by the subjunctive mood, w conjunctions quin, ne, and quò minùs; as,

I will not hinder you from studying: Per me now quò minùs studeas.

1. We were not able to deter even the Rheni, our brethr kinsmen in blood, from consenting with these people.

2. Be not hindered from paying your vow in due time (ritè), no it off till death.

3 The winds hinder the bees from carrying their food home. 4. Why do you keep me from using my own?

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